November 2, 2007
Suja Thomas of University of Cincinatti College of Law recently posted Why the Motion to Dismiss is Now Unconstitutional, which is forthcoming in Minnesota Law Review. In her article, Thomas argues that the Supreme Court’s decisions last term in Bell Atlantic Corp. v. Twombly and Tellabs, Inc. v. Makor Issues & Rights impermissibly impose on a plaintiff’s constititional rights to a jury trial. Here is the abstract:
This Article is the first to address the issue of the constitutionality of the motion to dismiss. Until now, motions to dismiss have not been the subject of much academic commentary, in part because courts have rarely dismissed cases upon motions to dismiss. However, decisions by the Court this past term in Bell Atlantic Corp. v. Twombly and Tellabs, Inc. v. Makor Issues & Rights, Ltd. changed the civil procedure landscape tremendously. In these decisions, the Court “retire[d]” the fifty-year-old rule of Conley v. Gibson under which a complaint could not be dismissed unless there was “no set of facts” upon which relief could be granted. The Court cast this rule away in favor of a standard under which courts critically assess whether the claim is plausible and at times, examine inferences that favor both the plaintiff and the defendant. In setting up this new standard, the Court emphasized the concern that companies should not be subject to discovery and forced settlements in unmeritorious cases and also stressed that Congress and the rule-makers possessed the authority to establish pleading procedures. Under the new standards, courts will dismiss cases much more often using the motion to dismiss. This impending phenomenon of increased dismissals by judges before the fact-finder hears any evidence is noteworthy. It will compound a significant decline in the number of jury trials due to dismissals upon summary judgment, and this will occur in the presence of the Seventh Amendment that, by its text and history, strongly protects the right to a jury trial. Under established Supreme Court case law interpreting the Seventh Amendment, the “common law” governs the power of constitutional actors such as the courts and Congress to interfere with the jury trial. Under this case law, a modern procedure must satisfy the substance of the English common law jury trial in 1791 to be constitutional under the Seventh Amendment. This Article argues that Twombly and Tellabs did not adequately follow the Supreme Court jurisprudence on the Seventh Amendment. In Twombly, albeit not raised, the Court failed to recognize the Seventh Amendment issue that overlay its decision despite the significant effect of the decision on the right to a jury trial. In Tellabs, where it did recognize a Seventh Amendment question, the Court ignored the governing common law. These cases open up a new constitutional discussion that tests the limits of the Seventh Amendment. The Article shows that the new motion to dismiss standards do not adequately comport with the substance of the common law jury trial and thus are unconstitutional. Contrary to the common law, these standards permit courts to improperly assess the plausibility of facts and corresponding inferences pled by plaintiffs and weigh those inferences against inferences that favor defendants. The Article concludes that while Twombly and Tellabs were in the limited areas of antitrust and securities fraud, the standards set forth in those cases will be used to dismiss a variety of fact-intensive cases including those frequently dismissed upon summary judgment such as employment discrimination and other civil rights cases.
October 3, 2007
BNAs Corporate Counsel Weekly (subscription required) reports that the SEC has planned a roundtable discussion on the status of shareholder securities litigation to be held in January 2008. According to the BNA report, the roundtable was prompted by a letter from six law professors, including Professor Donald Langevoort of Georgetown, raising concerns that the current system does not work as well it could. Among the concerns the professors raised in their letter are:
- securities fraud settlements typically are funded by the shareholders, directly or indirectly;
- compensation to defrauded investors comes at a “relatively high cost” in lawyers’ fees and related expenses; and
- “the current system does a bad job at deterrence because … settlements almost never come out of the pockets of the managers who allegedly executed the fraud.”
All of these are valid and serious concerns. Hopefully, the SEC and roundtable participants will brainstorm to devise ways to address these problems with a more creative approach than further dismantling the securities fraud liability regime. My view (which I present in this article in Iowa Law Review) is that the D&O liability insurance system and the issue of personal liability for individual wrongdoing are the areas most deserving of careful attention for reform.
September 20, 2007
The New York Times and wire services are reporting that famed securities lawyer Mel Weiss will be indicted today in connection with a longstanding investigation into a kickback scheme by his law firm. The firm, Milberg Weiss, has already been indicted and one of its former partners David Bershad has pleaded guilty in the investigation. The expected charges against Weiss follow closely on the heels of a plea deal entered into by his former law partner, Bill Lerach, earlier this week. The New York Times story is here: Prominent Lawyer to Be Indicted.
September 18, 2007
The New York Times reports that famed securities plaintiffs’ lawyer, William Lerach, has agreed to plead guilty in connection with a federal investigation into kickbacks allegedly paid to securities litigation plaintiffs by his former law firm, Milberg Weiss. Lerach is expected to serve one to two years in prison, forfeit $7.75 million to the government, and pay a $250,00 fine. Here is the New York Times story: Lawyer Will Plead Guilty in Kickback Scheme.
August 29, 2007
Famed securities plaintiffs’ lawyer Bill Lerach has retired from his firm, Lerach Coughlin Stoia Geller Rudman & Robbins, amid a continuing federal criminal investigation into an alleged kickback scheme run by his former firm Milberg Weiss. Here is the WSJ story (subscription required): Milberg Figure Lerach Retires Amid Plea Talks.
August 8, 2007
The New York Times reports today that former Brocade Communications Systems Chief Executive Gregory Reyes was convicted on ten counts of conspiracy and fraud in the first criminal trial connected to the option back-dating scandals. Here is the story: Ex-Brocade Chief Convicted in Backdating Case.
Reyes, who did not personally receive any tainted options, faces up to 20 years in prison. An interesting quote in the New York Times story comes from a human resources employee who testified at trial that Reyes told her the practice was “not illegal if you don’t get caught.” This quote seems to capture the mentality of many corporate employees and executives caught up in misconduct; from market timing to insurance bid-rigging to analyst fraud. A variation of the view is “if everyone is doing it, it can’t be wrong.” Such self-serving rationalizations certainly help the individuals engaged in unethical conduct live with themselves, but they seem not to stand up well as a defense in a criminal trial.
July 10, 2007
Former Milberg Weiss partner David Bershad has pled guilty to one count of conspiracy in connection with an ongoing investigation into illegal kickbacks that his former firm allegedly paid to individuals who served as lead plaintiffs in class action securities litigation. According an article in today’s New York Times, Bershad has detailed how the firm, beginning in the 1970s, recruited a “stable” of clients by secretly paying them up to ten percent of the legal fees the firm obtained.
The article reports that Bershad has agreed to disgorge $7.75 million and pay a $250,000 fine. He will also cooperate with the government’s investigation of other participants in the alleged conspiracy. The plea should put pressure on the Milberg Weiss firm and partner Steven Schulman who have also been indicted. Partner Melvyn Weiss and former partner William Lerach have not been indicted, but they may also face pressure from Bershad’s guilty plea.